PROSTATE CANCER

Signs and Symptoms

A lump in the breast that is present all the time and does not get smaller or go away with the menstrual cycle.  Characteristics may include:

■ The lump is present all the time and does not get smaller or go away with  the menstrual cycle.

■ The lump may feel like it is attached to the skin or chest wall and cannot  be moved.

■ The lump may feel hard, irregular in shape and very different from the rest  of the breast tissue.

■ The lump may be tender, but it is usually not painful.  Pain is more often a symptom of a non-cancerous (benign) condition, but  should still be checked by a doctor.


A lump in the armpit (axilla)


Changes in breast shape or size


Skin changes such as dimpling or puckering, redness, swelling and/or increased warmth (signs that look like an infection)  may be a sign of inflammatory breast cancer as can itching of the breast or nipple and other itchiness not relieved by ointments, creams or other  medications.


Nipple changes such as pointed inwards, discharge or ulcers.


Detection

If you suspect breast cancer ask your doctor to send you for screening which may include one or more of the following:

■ Mammogram
■ Ultrasound
■ MRI
■ Biopsy

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BREAST CANCER

​​​​Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of prostate cancer can also be caused by other health  conditions. It is important to have any unusual symptoms checked by a  doctor.

changes in bladder habits:

■ need to urinate often (frequency), especially at night
■ intense need to urinate (urgency)
■ difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow
■ inability to urinate
■ weak or decreased urine stream
■ interrupted urine stream
■ a sense of incompletely emptying the bladder
■ burning or pain during urination
■ blood in the urine or semen
■ painful ejaculation

Detection

Even without symptoms regular screening should begin at around 50 or earlier, depending on your family history.  Tests will include one or more of the following:

■ PSA Test
■ Digital Rectal Exam
■ Biopsy

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​​Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms associated with ovarian cancer are often vague, non-specific and can also be caused by other health  conditions. It is important to have any unusual symptoms checked by a  doctor.  Common symptoms include:

■ Bloating - increased abdominal size/persistent bloating
■ Eating - difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
■ Pain - in pelvic or abdominal areas
■ Urinary symptoms – urgency or frequency

Occasionally there can be other symptoms such as changes in bowel habits, extreme fatigue or unexplained weight loss. Just because you have the symptoms does not mean you have ovarian cancer.  However, if your symptoms persist it is important to see your doctor.

Detection

Unfortunately, there is no reliable screening test for ovarian cancer.  If you have signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer ask your doctor for screening, which will include one or more of the following.

■ complete pelvic exam
■ transvaginal or pelvic ultrasound
■ CA-125 blood test
■ CT Scan
■ PET Scan
■ Biopsy

Note:  These tests are most effective when used in combination.

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OVARIAN CANCER

There may be a slightly higher risk of other types of cancer, depending on the gene mutation.  See List of Risky Genes

Cancer Symptoms and Detection